Conjunctions or Connecting Words.
Conjunctions are words used as connectors. They are connecting cords that link other words or groups of words. There are several major types of conjunctions in English. Below is a list of common conjunctions:Comparison: These connecting words link two similar ideas. Examples include: in the same way, likewise, just as, both … and.
Contrast: These connecting words link two ideas that are considered to be different. Examples include: but, however, in contrast, on the contrary, on the other hand, instead, nevertheless, yet, still, even so, neither … nor.
Concession: These connecting words are a subtype of contrast conjunctions. They are used to contrast one idea with another where one piece of information appears to be surprising or unexpected in view of the other idea. Examples include: though, although, despite, in spite of, notwithstanding, whereas, while, even though.
Addition: These connecting words allow us to add information. Examples include: and, also, in addition, not only … but also, moreover, further, furthermore, plus, besides.
Replacement: These connecting words offer an alternative. Examples are: or, or else, alternatively.
Time: These show the chronology of events or ideas. Examples of conjunctions of time include: after, afterwards, before, previously, prior to, up ‘til now, to the present, at present, first, then, second(ly), third(ly), finally, first and foremost, next.
Cause: These connecting words show a cause-effect relationship between two ideas. Examples include: for this reason, in order that, as, because, because of this, therefore, thus, hence, as a result, consequently, since, so, so that, why.
Condition: These conjunctions provide the conditions under which something happens or is the case. Examples are: unless, if … then, in that case, that being so.
Exemplification: Conjunctions of exemplification introduce examples. Examples are: for example, for instance, to illustrate this, such as.
Restatement: Conjunctions of restatement are used to reword or sum up information. Examples of conjunctions of restatement include: that is, to put it another way, in other words, to sum up, in brief.
Emphasis: Conjunctions can be used for emphasis. Examples include: Indeed, in fact, only.